TBI and Stroke
Concussions and head injuries that cause emotional, cognitive, and behavioral problems occur as a result of many things such as motor vehicle accidents, war (Trudeau et al., 1998), and sports (McCrea, Prichep, Powell, Chabor, & Barr, 2010; McKee et al., 2009), including football (Amen et al., 2011), doing headers in soccer (Tysvaer, Stroll, & Bachen, 1989), and boxing (Ross, Cole, Thompson, & Kim, 1983).
The most traditionally advised medical treatment for TBI is rest and rehabilitation. Patients are strongly advised to stop their previous physical and cognitive activity
for up to a week following the injury. They may also be provided specific
rehabilitation and/or medication for persisting secondary problems. While helpful, this may not fully resolve many of the significant, neurologically based cognitive
and emotional symptoms noted above. These may persist for weeks, months,
and years after the Initial Injury.
Neurofeedback assists rehabilitation.
Treatment outcome studies of closed and open head injuries have been published (Ayers, 1987, 1991, 1999; Bounias, Laibow, Bonaly, & Stubbelbine, 2001; Bounais, Laibow, Stubbelbine, Sandground, & Bonaly, 2002; Byers, 1995; Hammond, 2007a, 2007b, 2010c; Hoffman, Stockdale, Hicks, &
Schwaninger, 1995; Hoffman, Stockdale, & Van Egren, 1996a, 1996b; Keller, 2001; Laibow, Stubbelbine, Sandground, & Bounais, 2001; Schoenberger et al., 2001; Thornton, 2000; Tinius & Tinius, 2001), as well as with stroke (Ayers, 1981, 1995a, 1995b, 1999; Bearden, Cassisi, & Pineda, 2003; Cannon,
Sherlin, & Lyle, 2010; Doppelmayr, Nosko, Pecherstorfer, & Fink, 2007; Putnam, 2001; Rozelle & Budzynski, 1995; Walker, 2007; Wing, 2001), but further high-quality research needs to be done. One article (Hammond, 2007b) reported a case of moderate severity TBI treated with the LENS, which resulted in the complete reversal of posttraumatic anosmia (complete loss of sense of smell) of 9 years’ duration, which was previously unheard of, as well as significant clinical improvement in postconcussion symptoms.